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Sunday , 7 March 2021

विश्व पर्यावरण दिवस

संस्था द्वारा विश्व प्र्यावरण दिवस मनाया जाता है जिसमे वृक्षारोपण किया वा आमजनो से करवाया जाता है तथा पर्यावरण को साफ रखने तथा वृक्ष लगाने की सलाह दी जाती है ।

सारी दुनिया में 5 जून को विश्व पर्यावरण दिवस मनाया जाता है। इस दिन लोग स्टाकहोम, हेलसेंकी, लन्दन, विएना, क्योटो जैसे सम्मेलनों और मॉन्ट्रियल प्रोटोकाल, रियो घोषणा पत्र, संयुक्त राष्ट्र पर्यावरण कार्यक्रम इत्यादि को याद करते हैं। गोष्ठियों में सम्पन्न प्रयासों का लेखाजोखा पेश किया जाता है। अधूरे कामों पर चिन्ता व्यक्त की जाती है। समाज का आह्वान किया जाता है।

लोग कहते हैं कि इतिहास अपने को दोहराता है। कुछ लोगों का मानना है कि इतिहास से सबक लेना चाहिए। इन दोनों वक्तव्यों को ध्यान में रख पर्यावरण दिवस पर धरती के इतिहास के पुराने पन्नों को पर्यावरण की नजर देखना-परखना या पलटना ठीक लगता है। इतिहास के पहले पाठ का सम्बन्ध डायनासोर के विलुप्त होने से है।

वैज्ञानिक बताते हैं कि लगभग साढ़े छह करोड़ साल पहले धरती पर डायनासोरों की बहुतायत थी। वे ही धरती पर सबसे अधिक शक्तिशाली प्राणी थे। फिर अचानक वे अचानक विलुप्त हो गए। अब केवल उनके अवशेष ही मिलते हैं। उनके विलुप्त होने का सबसे अधिक मान्य कारण बताता है कि उनकी सामुहिक मौत आसमान से आई। लगभग साढ़े छह करोड़ साल पहले धरती से एक विशाल धूमकेतु या छुद्र ग्रह टकराया।

उसके धरती से टकराने के कारण वायुमण्डल की हवा में इतनी अधिक धूल और मिट्टी घुल गई कि धरती पर अन्धकार छा गया। सूरज की रोशनी के अभाव में वृक्ष अपना भोजन नहीं बना सके और अकाल मृत्यु को प्राप्त हुए। भूख के कारण उन पर आश्रित शाकाहार डायनासोर और अन्य जीवजन्तु भी मारे गए। संक्षेप में, सूर्य की रोशनी का अभाव तथा वातावरण में धूल और मिट्टी की अधिकता ने धरती पर महाविनाश की इबारत लिख दी। यह पर्यावरण प्रदूषण का लगभग साढ़े छह करोड़ साल पुराना किस्सा है।

आधुनिक युग में वायु प्रदूषण, जल का प्रदूषण, मिट्टी का प्रदूषण, तापीय प्रदूषण, विकरणीय प्रदूषण, औद्योगिक प्रदूषण, समुद्रीय प्रदूषण, रेडियोधर्मी प्रदूषण, नगरीय प्रदूषण, प्रदूषित नदियाँ और जलवायु बदलाव तथा ग्लोबल वार्मिंग के खतरे लगातार दस्तक दे रहे हैं। ऐसी हालत में इतिहास की चेतावनी ही पर्यावरण दिवस का सन्देश लगती है।

पिछले कुछ सालों में पर्यावरणीय चेतना बढ़ी है। विकल्पों पर गम्भीर चिन्तन हुआ है तथा कहा जाने लगा है कि पर्यावरण को बिना हानि पहुँचाए या न्यूनतम हानि पहुँचाए टिकाऊ विकास सम्भव है। यही बात प्राकृतिक संसाधनों के सन्दर्भ में कही जाने लगी है।

कुछ लोग उदाहरण देकर बताते हैं कि लगभग 5000 साल तक खेती करने, युद्ध सामग्री निर्माण, धातु शोधन, नगर बसाने तथा जंगलों को काट कर बेवर खेती करने के बावजूद अर्थात विकास और प्राकृतिक संसाधनों के बीच तालमेल बिठाकर उपयोग करने के कारण प्राकृतिक संसाधनों का ह्रास नहीं हुआ था। तो कुछ लोगों का कहना है कि परिस्थितियाँ तथा आवश्यकताओं के बदलने के कारण भारतीय उदाहरण बहुत अधिक प्रासंगिक नहीं है।

फासिल ऊर्जा के विकल्प के तौर स्वच्छ ऊर्जा जैसे अनेक उदाहरण अच्छे भविष्य की उम्मीद जगाते हैं। सम्भवतः इसी कारण विश्वव्यापी चिन्ता इतिहास से सबक लेती प्रतीत होती है।

पर्यावरण को हानि पहुँचाने में औद्योगीकरण तथा जीवनशैली को जिम्मेदार माना जाता है। यह पूरी तरह सच नहीं है। हकीक़त में समाज तथा व्यवस्था की अनदेखी और पर्यावरण के प्रति असम्मान की भावना ने ही संसाधनों तथा पर्यावरण को सर्वाधिक हानि पहुँचाई है। उसके पीछे पर्यावरण लागत तथा सामाजिक पक्ष की चेतना के अभाव की भी भूमिका है। इन पक्षों को ध्यान में रख किया विकास ही अन्ततोगत्वा विश्व पर्यावरण दिवस का अमृत होगा।

डायनासोर यदि आकस्मिक आसमानी आफत के शिकार हुए थे तो हम अपने ही द्वारा पैदा की आफ़त की अनदेखी के शिकार हो सकते है। विश्व पर्यावरण दिवस के अवसर पर यह अपेक्षा करना सही होगा कि रेत में सिर छुपाने के स्थान पर अपने अस्तित्व की रक्षा के लिये स्वच्छ तकनीकों को आगे लाया जाना चाहिए, गलत तकनीकों को नकारा जाना चाहिए या सुधार कर सुरक्षित बनाया जाना चाहिए। उम्मीद है, कम-से-कम भारत में ज़मीनी हकीक़त का अर्थशास्त्र उसकी नींव रखेगा। शायद यही इतिहास का भारतीय सबक होगा।

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